DROGOTEST ¿Seguridad Vial o Recaudación?

DROGOTEST ¿Seguridad Vial o Recaudación?

entrada drogotest

Ya ha pasado mucho tiempo, demasiado, desde que el pasado 9 de mayo del año 2.014 entraba en vigor la última reforma de la Ley de Tráfico, muchas han sido las voces que se han alzado debido a lo injusto de la reforma y al fin recaudatorio de la misma, pero ello no ha hecho modificar, ni en lo más mínimo, la ley.

La más que probable inconstitucionalidad de la norma, la fiabilidad del “drogotest” ya varias veces cuestionada y la desinformación al respecto del procedimiento sancionador son hechos que ponen de manifiesto y cuestionan un procedimiento injusto, desproporcionado y donde apenas existe posibilidades de defensa, en la práctica son un elevado número de sancionados los que de deciden pagar la sanción con un descuento del 50% y renunciar a presentar alegación alguna, eso sí, perdiendo seis puntos del carnet de conducir.

Con esta colaboración no podremos, muy a nuestro pesar, evitar que se siga sancionando a los usuarios de cánnabis, principales afectados de este desafortunado procedimiento, pero intentaremos, al menos poner de manifiesto los motivos por los que consideramos que es todo un despropósito legal y racional que se sigan imponiendo estás sanciones. Únicamente os trasmitiremos una visión fundamentada de lo injusta que es esta norma y de las pautas mínimas que debéis seguir en caso tener la mala suerte de ser víctimas de este tipo de controles, información para poder decidir y actuar desde el primer momento.

Tened clara la diferencia entre presencia y afectación es fundamental para entender la barbaridad legislativa que supone la ley de tráfico, se trata de dos situaciones diferentes en sentido médico, jurídico e incluso filológico, presencia y afectación, no son lo mismo. Interesa tener en cuenta tres parámetros, primero cuando se produce afectación a pesar de que se consuma, segundo, cuanto duran esos efectos, ya que presencia no indica afectación, y tercero, como se miden esos efectos.

Para determinar la afectación mínima o el efecto en el organismo de la sustancia, es decir, la creación de efectos farmacológicos, el Instituto Nacional de Toxicología (informe del servicio de información toxicológica del Instituto Nacional de Toxicología 12691/2003), máximo órgano institucional asesor de los Tribunales de Justicia y, en concreto, del Tribunal Supremo, en materia de analítica de fármacos, ha indicado que en el caso del T.C.H., los efectos farmacológicos se producen a partir de un consumo de 10 mg de T.H.C.. Es lo que se conoce como dosis mínima psicoactiva, que indica la cantidad mínima de una sustancia química, de origen natural o sintético, que tiene efecto en el organismo. Por lo tanto se trata de una dosis mínima que efectivamente puede consumirse y estar presente en el organismo de una persona, pero no tendrá ningún efecto sobre esta, así lo establecen criterios médico-científicos.

Ahora bien, para detectar esa presencia de cánnabis en el organismo que fundamente la sanción se realiza por parte de la fuerza actuante la conocida por todos como prueba del “drogotest”, que en realidad se denomina DRAEGER DRUGTEST 5000, un aparato del que interesa destacar, sobre todo, que tiene un margen de error elevado de inicio en la prueba que se hace en el momento. Este hecho, reconocido por la Fiscalía General, supone que entre el 10% y 12% de las primeras pruebas son erróneas, lo que puede llevar a situaciones de castigo inicial en personas que no han consumido cannabis en la vida, como es el caso de los fumadores pasivos, o que tras un periodo considerable de tiempo, den positivos simplemente por la mera presencia en el organismo de T.H.C. al margen de la afectación o alteración de este hecho a su conducción. Además de lo ya manifestado y la simple lógica, si hoy nos fumamos un porro no es muy descabellado pensar que dentro de 24 horas ya se nos haya pasado, hay que tener en cuenta que no se conocen con exactitud los tiempos que el THC puede permanecer en el organismo de una persona, dependerá de los hábitos, de la alimentación, o si se trata o no de un consumidor habitual.

Pese a ello, los datos que obran en el informe “Evaluación del dispositivo DraegerDrugtest 5000 para la detección de drogas de abuso en saliva” (Coordinador Manuel López Rivadulla, Santiago de Compostela, 2011) indican que estos aparatos son sensibles, es decir, dan positivo, a 5ng (nanogramos) por mililitro de saliva, no aclarando cuanto es eso en cantidad consumida, ni tampoco el tiempo transcurrido desde la última vez que se consumió. Si los análisis se realizan en un laboratorio, es menor aún el punto de corte, siéndolo de 1ng/ml para que el resultado sea positivo. Algunos estudios hablan que la duración del T.H.C. en saliva es de 12 horas, pero otros incluso lo amplían a días, como ya hemos dicho dependerá en todo caso de los hábitos de la persona y de si se trata o no de consumidores habituales.

Si por el contrario el análisis se realiza en sangre, análisis de contraste que voluntariamente tienen la posibilidad de realizarse el posible sancionado corriendo con los gastos del mismo en caso de dar positivo, estaríamos hablando de una posible duración, desde la última vez que se ha consumido, de aproximadamente 114 horas para los usuarios y 144 para los usuarios pasivos según el Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, lo que convierte aún más en un sinsentido la fundamentación de esta sanción, ya que no es lógico, ni racional, ni científicamente demostrable, que una persona que deja de consumir en un momento concreto, pueda tener afectación farmacológica por ese último consumo de cánnabis 5 días después.

En atención a esta legislación, ya en vigor desde hace casi dos años, hay en estos momentos interpuesto y admitido a trámite un Recurso de Amparo al Tribunal Constitucional por una sanción por conducción bajo los efectos del cannabis de una ciudadana no consumidora de cannabis (consumidora pasiva). Este recurso ha sido elaborado y dirigido desde el Estudio Jurídico BROTSANBERT y el Estudio Consultor S.I.C.A.G. donde después de un procedimiento administrativo primero y judicial después que va camino de durar ya cuatro años aún estamos en estos momentos, teniendo en cuenta la carga de trabajo del alto tribunal, a la espera de una sentencia que debe ser ya inminente, y que esperemos sea decisiva para declarar la inconstitucional esta ley. Ya que como hemos repetido y repetiremos hasta ser escuchados, que se detecte una sustancia en organismo de una persona no quiere decir que estemos bajo los efectos de la misma. Esto no es una cuestión que pueda regular una ley, o se está o no se está bajo los efectos de una sustancia, no debería haber entrado nunca el ordenamiento jurídico, ni ahora, ni nunca, a imponer sanciones por conductas que la ciencia ha probado que son inocuas (que no son nada), pero que a día de hoy, pese a la perplejidad de quienes somos conocedores de estos extremos, se siguen imponiendo.

Mientras esta situación sea la que es y no se revoque por el medio que sea esta ley, lo recomendable es no hacer ninguna manifestación, acogiéndonos a nuestro derecho de defensa, no firmar ninguna recepción de sanción en virtud del mismo derecho, y sobre todo, en cuanto tengamos oportunidad, pese a lo que se manifiesta al respecto de una posible segunda prueba que llegará, iniciar los trámites para recurrir la sanción, ya que el plazo, pese a que lo que se manifieste por la fuerza actuante, empieza a contar desde el mismo momento de la prueba, no hay que esperar a nada, ya que en la práctica muchos son los que se quedan a la espera de una segunda prueba, y lo que único que les llega es la sanción para pagar en vía de apremio, con un 20% de recargo y sin posibilidad de acogerse al descuento del 50%. En cuanto a la prueba de contraste en sangre, hay que tener en cuenta el tiempo indicado para que pueda dar positivo, para en su caso valorar su conveniencia y, más teniendo en cuenta, que el coste en caso de confirmación, es a cargo del conductor.

Esperamos haber sido de ayuda en cuanto a la información dada, los consejos expuestos y, sobre todo haber concienciado en la lucha contra esta injusticia que lo único que hace es, salvo contados casos donde si es evidente un estado de afectación, sancionar a ciudadanos por consumir.

Fuente: Estudio Jurídico BROTSANBERT.

45 Enfermedades tratables con cannabis

45 Enfermedades tratables con cannabis

Once you learn about the endocannabinoid system in your body, it becomes very clear just why cannabis can treat so many different illnesses.

The great thing about cannabis as medicine is that it’s all-natural, and you don’t have to worry about potentially fatal side effects that you get with other so-called medicines.

Our medicine should be something that makes us feel better, not a chemical experiment that makes us feel worse or that could kill us.

And with cannabis, we literally have decades’ worth of research (despite government restriction) that proves its effectiveness and safety.

endocannabinoid system graphic
The endocannabinoid system is responsible for keeping all of our metabolic processes in check.
The good news is that as prohibition continues to fall apart, patients have an increasing number in cannabis options, be it through vaporizing, edibles, topicals, or even transdermal patches.

Here are just 45 of the ailments treatable with cannabis.

#1) Prostate Cancer

Recent anecdotal and scientific evidence – including a 2009 study published in the British Journal of Cancer – suggests that prostate cancer could be inhibited through cannabinoid treatment.

#2) Depression

Depression is a medical issue affects 9 percent of Americans. A ray of hope has come through preliminary research released in 2015 in the Journal of Neuroscience found that compounds gleaned from cannabis could help ease symptoms of depression in patients.

#3) Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Most prevalent in children and often carried over into adulthood, ADHD shows through a seeming inability to pay attention and a general exhibition of hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to Dr. David Bearman, cannabis is likely more effective than pharmaceuticals in treating ADHD by increasing the availability of dopamine in the brain, which is responsible for regulating behavior and focusing attention. This would explain a lot of the anecdotal reports we get from people who successfully self-treat their ADHD with cannabis.

#4) Crohn’s Disease

Multiple studies have found this painful and life-threatening disease – also known as ‘inflammatory bowel disease’ – to be treatable with cannabinoid therapy.

#5) Chronic Stress

Chronic stress – with such symptoms as panic attacks, depression, sleep deprivation, and cardiovascular diseases – can have debilitating effects on a person’s psychological and physical health. Thankfully, multiple studies – including one conducted by researchers from Vanderbilt University – find cannabis to be highly effective in reducing chronic stress and its effects.

#6) Cigarette Addiction

Cigarette addiction is regarded as one of the leading worldwide causes of preventable death, and curbing the rate of smokers has become a top priority for physicians. Luckily, it turns out that the administration of cannabidiol (CBD) helps with the management of withdrawal symptoms for smokers looking to quit.

Auntie Dolores edibles
Cannabis legalization is bringing with it a whole new variety of options for intake methods.
#7) Arthritis

Compounds from cannabis have proven to be a remarkably effective treatment of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

#8) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

People have believed for years that cannabis could be effective in the treatment of PTSD. Now it appears that the view is going mainstream: The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) approved in April a clinical study to combat the disorder’s effects. Meanwhile, PTSD patients have been telling us all along that cannabis works best.

#9) Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease in the optic nerve that often results in blindness. The use of cannabis – particularly through oral ingestion – has been found to lower pressure in the eye. Yet despite initial optimism, further study into cannabis’s effects on glaucoma patients has been encouraged by medical professionals.

#10) AIDS/HIV

While not offered as a ‘cure’ for HIV/AIDS, cannabis has proven to be effective in the treatment of symptoms, which include nausea, loss of appetite, and anxiety.

#11) Alzheimer’s Disease

While a great deal of research has yet to be completed on the matter, preliminary scientific literature suggests that cannabinoids therapy can provide symptomatic relief – as well as a slowing of Alzheimer’s’ progression.

#12) Headaches

Over-the-counter drugs can be effective in the treatment of headaches; however, many of the common OTC treatments – such as Aleve and Tylenol, among others – can lead to deterioration in stomach lining. Cannabis, on the other hand, has been found to be a potentially effective natural treatment for headaches, including migraines.

#13) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

CBD – one of the main compounds in cannabis – has been shown to effectively combat and regulate anxiety. This could prove to be a game-changer for those living with the effects of OCD.

#14) Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

MS is a degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system and can ultimately result in permanent disability or even death. While examination of the disease is ongoing, people are finding cannabis to be an effective measure of relief for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

#15) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS aka Lou Gehrig’s Disease)

ALS is a debilitating disease of the nervous system that attacks spinal cord and brain neurons, over time resulting in paralysis and often times death from respiratory failure. No cure currently exists for ALS, but studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that medical cannabis could play a future role in the disease’s treatment and relief of symptoms.

#16) Chronic Pain

Chronic pain has been defined as any pain that lasts longer than 12 weeks – and encompasses such areas as physical, pathological, neurobiological, psychological, and social pain. While the causes of chronic pain are many, cannabis has is an often recommended treatment by physicians, and the number one ailment among medical cannabis patients.

doctor and patient
Physicians around the world are embracing cannabis as medicine because they want to see their patients actually get better.
#17) Pancreatic Cancer

At least one study – appearing in the seminal publication Cancer Research – suggests that cannabis could prove instrumental in treating the cancer regarded as the fourth-deadliest cancer diagnosis.

#18) Opioid Addiction

The media and the medical community alike have acknowledged opioid addiction as one of the country’s leading public health crises. However, one study, appearing in the Journal of the American Medical Association, found states with relevant medical cannabis laws have a lower opioid-related mortality rate (by nearly 25 percent!).

#19) Disc Degeneration

Intervertebral discs – also known simply as ‘discs’ – are masses of cartilage that sit between each vertebra. Degenerated discs, if left untreated, can result in spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or herniated discs. A 2014 study on rats with recreated disc degenerations found that the subjects treated with higher doses of cannabidiol saw their conditions measurably improve.

#20) Skin Cancer

While the medical establishment remains dubious on this one, people continue to share with the world how cannabis helped them overcome skin cancer.

#21) Traumatic Brain Injury

Two recent surveys – one appearing in The American Surgeon and the other in Brain Sciences – offer substantial support to the notion that cannabis can be an effective treatment for traumatic brain injuries among both adults and perinatal children.

#22) Parkinson’s Disease

A significant amount of research has already been completed on the relationship between cannabis and the management and improvement of Parkinson’s Disease patients’ health. Such studies have found an improvement in sleep, improvement of motor control, and a general improvement in quality of life.

#23) Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is the slow degeneration of muscle mass throughout the body. Though the disease is genetic and research on the issue has yet to be fully sussed out, one 2010 study detailed the ways in which cannabis could prove beneficial to patients suffering from the disease.

#24) Epilepsy

This seizure-inducing condition has been on the radar of cannabis advocates for years, and we are beginning to see why: Multiple studies have found a link between cannabis treatment and the lowering – or even cessation – of epileptic seizures.

#25) Autism

Scientific studies – plus a sizable amount of anecdotal evidence – suggest that placing greater emphasis on supplementing the endocannabinoid system with phytocannabinoids could lead to enhanced treatment of autism, especially in children.

#26) Lupus

This chronic inflammatory disease affects approximately 1.5 to 2 million Americans. Though the disease has no cure, two of the most common therapeutic properties of cannabis – pain and inflammation relief – are effective in alleviating lupus’s symptoms.

cannabis plant
Cannabis is a valuable herb that has been wrongfully demonized for decades.
#27) Malaria

Malaria is transmitted to humans by mosquitos and may result in everything from blood vessel clogs to brain cell damage. While deaths related to malaria have fallen in recent years, an animal study published last year in Neuroscience found CBD treatment to improve the mental functioning and survival rates of subjects infected with the disease.

#28) Schizophrenia

This debilitating mental disorder could result in hallucinations, incoherent speech, social withdrawal, and institutionalization. Despite conflicting studies and reports, many schizophrenia patients turn to cannabis to ease their symptoms, and one study has revealed that the endocannabinoid system has a direct involvement in the mental illness.

#29) Leukemia

This dangerous form of cancer – which affects the blood and starts in the bone marrow – has been investigated for its possible responses to CBD and THC treatment. Though there remains a great deal of work to be done on the issue, preliminary studies suggest that cannabis treatment for leukemia has a bright future in the years ahead.

#30) Strokes

Strokes – defined as the temporary blockage of blood to the brain – can have debilitating long-term effects on motor and speech skills, as well as brain damage. It turns out cannabis can protect the brain of stroke victims, reducing the amount of damage suffered.

#31) Breast Cancer

This is the most common cancer among women and while a great deal of research remains to be completed on how the disease responds to cannabis treatment, a study published last year in Molecular Oncology found CBD to be a “potent” drug in fighting triple-negative breast cancer.

#32) Fibromyalgia

This muscle pain- and fatigue-inducing disorder has been found to be effectively treated using medical cannabis. Cannabis users in this study, conducted by researchers at Spain’s University of Granada, experienced a decrease in pain and a greater quality of life.

#33) Colon Cancer

This particularly vicious strain of cancer has been met with effective treatment through the use of cannabis extracts high in CBD.

#34) Heart disease

Cardiovascular disease – also known as heart disease – is cited as the world’s leading cause of death, with roughly 17.3 million deaths per year. However, studies working with medical cannabis compounds have found cannabinoids to be effective in improving cardiovascular functions, but also that the damage caused by heart attacks may be constrained through ultra-low doses of THC.

Buds and Roses dispensary
Dispensaries are turning into pharmacies, except their medicine is safe and effective. ( Image: Buds & Roses dispensary in LA)
#35) Asthma

Studies have found that the effects of cannabis and its components have resulted in measurable improvement in asthma-like symptoms, and there are actually several reasons why cannabis can work wonders here.

#36) Huntington’s Disease

This neurodegenerative disorder over time can result in physical and mental degradation. No cure currently exists, but studies indicate that cannabis may be effective in preventing certain neurodegenerative diseases, as well as treating some of the symptoms associated with Huntington’s.

#37) Alcoholism

For many people suffering from alcoholism, cannabis has become a go-to substitute. Essentially, cannabis provides them a much safer, healthier alternative.

#38) Diabetes

An estimated 29.1 million people in the U.S. suffer from diabetes. Cannabis, however, has proven to be helpful in managing or even preventing type-2 diabetes.

#39) Bladder Cancer

A February 2015 study published in The Journal of Urology found the use of whole-plant cannabis in California men to be “inversely associated with bladder cancer risk.” While the study took care to say that a causal effect was not detected, the study nonetheless offers promise to those looking to counteract the effects or even prevent this harmful and often fatal disease.

#40) Obesity

A recent study by the CDC found that a whopping 36 percent of Americans are considered obese. Thankfully, studies show cannabis being highly effective in the fight against obesity.

#41) Painful Bladder Syndrome

At least one study has found that interstitial cystitis – a chronic bladder disease also known as painful bladder syndrome – may be treated through the use of cannabinoids.

#42) Sleep Disorders

Lack of sleep can lead to a slew of health problems including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Many insomnia patients have found relief through cannabis, specifically THC, which acts as an all-natural sleep aid.

#43) Shingles

The skin rash shingles, while most common in older patients, is nonetheless highly prevalent. It is estimated that as many as one third of people will develop shingles in their lifetime. While a cure for the rash has yet to be discovered, cannabinoids may offer treatment for the pain associated with the disease’s effects.

#44) Tourette’s Syndrome

The neuropsychiatric disorder Tourette’s Syndrome – which results in a series of involuntary ‘tics’ and
the cause of which remains unknown – has no known cure. However, while research on the disorder’s relationship with cannabis remains ongoing, studies have already been undertaken showing promise through treatment with cannabinoid therapy.

#45) Osteoporosis

Several studies published in the last five years – including one in the British Journal of Pharmacology and one in Cell Metabolism – found that bone erosion caused by osteoporosis could be curtailed by bolstering the endocannabinoid system of affected patients with cannabinoid therapy.

Wow that’s a lot of ailments. Imagine how much more effective our healthcare would be if cannabis were fully embraced for the medicine that it is – the medicine that our bodies and endocannabinoid systems need.

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